For whenever there is a consciousness of guilt, and a dread of responsibility, it must be comfortable to have a God who is divested of all that is frowning and indignant towards transgressors, and clothed with all that is compassionate and kind. Nothing is more clear than that such historical facts and occurrences as those to which Paul in the foregoing passages appeals, were divinely ordered and adapted to represent spiritual things; and it is of great importance in the present day, when interpreters are so much inclined to overlook the types of the Old Testament, to take every proper opportunity of placing them in their true lights and pointing out the important purpose which they were intended to serve in the future economy, and for which they are referred to as in the passages before us. Yes, what we know of Esau’s character clearly proves it. "John Wesley's Explanatory Notes on the Whole Bible". Much is written pro and con upon this argument. We next see him deliberately resolving to murder his brother. "Commentary on Romans 9:13". He has made some eagles, and some worms; some He has made lions, and some creeping lizards; He has made some men kings, and some are born beggars. Though His nature be infinitely excellent above us, and His power infinitely transcendent over us, yet the majesty of His government is tempered with an unspeakable goodness. The national character inherited from the father of the race is not so impressed on his descendants that they cannot escape it. ), A gentleman who thought Christianity was merely a heap of puzzling problems, said to an old minister, “That is a very strange statement ‘Jacob have I loved, but Esau have I hated.’” “Very strange” replied the minister; “but what is it that you see most strange about it?” “Oh, that part of course about hating Esau.” “Well, sir,” said the minister, “how wonderfully are we made and how differently constituted. "William Godbey's Commentary on the New Testament". They were the casket which contained the heavenly jewel; and, for the jewel’s sake, the casket was carefully kept and guarded. Therefore whoever resists the authority resists the ordinance of God, and those who resist will bring judgment on themselves. BibliographyBarnes, Albert. Representing their respective nations, as often in the Old Testament. The asseverations, “I shall have mercy,” etc., seem to assume that there is forgiveness with God, that He may be had in reverence (Psalms 130:4). The Righteousness of this Sovereign Procedure (Romans 9:14-24). At length Esau was compelled to leave that land, and to yield to Jacob. These principles are always applied in mercy. Simply this--that the original reason of salvation is in God and not in man. ), 1. 'The word "serve" (Romans 9:1-2) need not be understood (adds Olshausen) of political servitude, but must be referred to a state of spiritual dependence into which Esau was brought by throwing away his birthright, while the stream of grace flowed away to Jacob. Paul"s point was that God does not wait until He sees how individuals or nations develop and what choices they make before He elects them. The whole discourse of the apostle in the context is not concerning preventing grace or mercy, but subsequent, as, viz., concerning justification, adoption, etc. III. According to those who oppose this manner of acting, God was under an obligation to send His Son into the world to save sinners. However, those who entertain a proper sense of man’s guilt by nature, will be at no loss to discern the ground of God’s hatred of Esau. It is God’s plan to work by means. There is a Divine way, which, if not observed, all the willing and the running will go for nothing. Romans 9:13. Esau may have been saved; salvation was in reach of every Edomite. There is in them, just as in the Saviour’s remark regarding the camel and the needle’s eye, something of bold hyperbolism. https: The reason God assigns for electing Abraham is given in Genesis 18:18-19 : “I know him that he will command his children and his household after him, and they will keep the way of Jehovah, to do justice and judgment,” etc. No idea of malice is implied of course. Observe that God had nothing to do with fitting men for destruction. And the house of Jacob shall be a fire, and the house of Joseph a flame, and the house of Esau for stubble, and they shall kindle in them, and devour them; and there shall not be any remaining of the house of Esau: for the Lord hath spoken it.’ Is it then in the unambiguous testimony of Scripture respecting Esau personally, as a profane person, and respecting his descendants, ‘the people against whom the Lord hath indignation for ever,’ — is it among the many indications of God’s goodness to Jacob, — that we find any countenance given to the imagination that God loved Esau only in a less degree than He loved Jacob? This gave occasion for enlarging on the sovereignty of God in the opposite aspect to that in which he had treated it in respect to believers. Why was it that God loved Jacob and hated Esau? That willing and running, or human efforts, are not essential to salvation. he gave him a dry and barren country, and made his mountain waste: that by God’s hating Esau, is only meant he loved him less than Jacob, &c. Such should consider, that the scope of the apostle is to show, that some are the children of God, and of the promise, and not others; and they must not make him cite testimonies out of the Old Testament impertinently. 1. In confirmation of this, he refers to the case of Ishmael, who was rejected, and of all the other children of Abraham being passed over in silence, Isaac remaining the only seed to inherit and to entail the promise. None whatever. For He saith to Moses, I will have mercy on whom I will have mercy. Explanation and Commentary of Romans 9:13 A serious conundrum for those that deny the sovereignty of God in choosing who will be saved, this verse must be approached with great care. (The very problem being dealt with in this chapter! [Note: Newell, p364.]. It is evident that Paul, throughout this chapter, refers not to the external condition of the Jews, which was indeed involved in their rejection of Christ, but to their spiritual state, as rejecting the righteousness which is of faith, and stumbling at that stumbling stone, verse 32. Johann Albrecht Bengel's Gnomon of the New Testament. And the doctrine is that every man who loses heaven gives it up himself. "Commentary on Romans 9:13". I have loved and I have hated do not signify merely: I have preferred the one to the other; but: I have taken Jacob to be mine, while I have set aside Esau. (T. De Witt Talmage. (C. H. The work of a man in obtaining his salvation is compared to husbandry, building, battle, racing; all laborious occupations. Looking at his sons standing round his bed, and knowing that all had families of growing children, he saw in them the firstfruits of the fulfilment of that promise given to him as part of the revelation: ‘Thy seed shall be as the dust of the earth; and thou shalt spread abroad to the west, and to the east, and to the north, and to the south, and in thee and in thy seed shall all the families of the earth be blessed.’ That was the promise given, as St. Paul says, to Abraham and his seed, not to all the branches of his posterity, but to the one line which ran through Jacob and his sons, and culminated in the birth of Christ. This is implied in the subsequent discussion, where the ill desert of all men is assumed, and salvation in the case of any presented as caused by God’s mercy. In the life of Esau, nothing is recorded indicating that he had the fear of God before his eyes, but everything to prove the reverse. 1. 13. In the original prophecy the statement that Esau was hated, is proved by the added words: ‘and laid his mountains and his heritage waste for the dragons of the wilderness.’ The reference to the nation of Edomites is therefore clear. (J. Vaughan, M.A.). The principle of mediation fills and rules the universe. These principles are fixed (verse 15). The vessels of the one description were the ‘remnant’ which should be saved, the ‘seed’ which the Lord of Sabbath had left, verses 27, 29. ‘Once when teaching a class of boys at a reformatory school I asked them, “When did you feel worse, on the day when you knew that you had stolen, or on the day when the policeman caught you?” They answered in a chorus, “The day I was caught, sir.” The crime was nothing. The unimpeachable righteousness of God in the dispensations of His mercy and justice. "Commentary on Romans 9:13". ], "The strong contrast is a Semitic idiom that heightens the comparison by stating it in absolute terms." By many it is indeed affirmed that such historical facts as the Apostle in these verses refers to, are only accommodated to the allegorical meaning. DD. Are independent of human will and action (verse 16). The question may be, of which the apostle speaks. Compare a subsequent verse of the same chapter, "The people against whom the Lord hath indignation forever" (Malachi 1:4). ἐμίσησα, moreover, is not to have a merely privative sense ascribed to it: not to love, or to love less (as Fessel, Glass, Grotius, Estius, and many, including Nösselt, Koppe, Tholuck, Flatt, Beck, Maier, Beyschlag), which is not admissible even in Matthew 6:24, Luke 14:26; Luke 16:13, John 12:25 (see, against this and similar attempts to weaken its force, Lamping); but it expresses the opposite of the positive ἠγάπ., viz. Neither are all the angels in heaven nor men upon earth able to take Him off from this His purpose. The very purpose of 30-33 (besides hundreds of other texts) is to declare that it is on account of faith the Christian is accepted, and of unfaith that the unbelieving Jew is rejected. In loving Jacob, God showed him unmerited favor, and acted towards him in mercy; and in hating Esau, He showed him no favor who was entitled to none, and acted according to justice. And as regards those who are destitute of this revelation, see Romans 2:13-15. 4. 1840-57. All the rights of the firstborn were thus transferred to Jacob, and the inheritance of Canaan devolved on him by the surrender of his ungodly brother. Go to, Just as it is written, "JACOB I LOVED, BUT ESAU I HATED. He requires them not to fear or worship Him so much for His power as His goodness. Like many other unfounded dogmas, it stands in direct opposition to the whole tenor of the Scriptures, which represent God as angry with the wicked every day, and hating all workers of iniquity, Psalm 5:5. But the man says: “Do not stop here, go to the top floor of the factory, and you will see the idea fully carried out.” I do so, and having come to the top, see the complete pattern of an exquisite shawl. 2. BibliographyEdwards, Justin. ‘It is certain,’ says Dr. Doddridge, ‘the Apostle does not here speak of the eternal state of Jacob and Esau, nor does he indeed so much speak of their persons as of their posterity, since it is plainly to that posterity that both the prophecies which he quotes in support of his argument refer.’ On this Mr. Fry remarks, ‘If so, the force and pertinency of the Apostle’s reasonings are lost. He was far more sinned against than sinning. We go up higher and higher until we begin to understand the Divine meaning with respect to us. We have additional evidence in these statements of the prophet’s reference to peoples as distinguished from individuals in the plural “we,” “ye,” etc. They love God. The Prophet likewise declares the dealing of God towards their posterity, but the part here referred to applies to the progenitors themselves. And hence this liberty, thus presented, might appear to degenerate into arbitrariness, and even into injustice. God had demonstrated greater love for Jacob"s descendants in the sense of allowing them to remain a people, and to be allowed to come back and dwell in their homeland (such would not be the case of Esau"s descendants). I go in on the first floor and see only the raw material, and I ask: “Are these the shawls I hear about?” “No,” says the manufacturer, “go up to the next floor”; and I go up, and there I begin to see the design. Had the whole of Adam’s race perished, God would only have dealt with them as He did with the fallen angels. 1870. The promises and threatenings shall be fulfilled. 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